Assessing Fungicide Resistance of Grape Powdery Mildew in Wine, Table and Raisin Grapes

Throughout 2017, a field scouting campaign that covered Central and Northern California, Western Oregon, and Southern Washington yielded over 850 field samples and 64 isolates of Erysiphe necator. Analysis of these samples for resistance to quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides (FRAC Group 11) using the G143A qPCR assay indicated widespread resistance throughout all grape growing regions scouted (90% resistance among ToughSpot kit samples). These results were confirmed when isolate and field sample DNA underwent genotyping by sequencing analysis of the cytb gene. These results are similar to the QoI resistance observed throughout Oregon in 2015 and 2016. Analysis of these samples using various molecular techniques and fungicide resistance bioassays to determine resistance to demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides (FRAC group 3) and succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicides (FRAC group 7) is ongoing. A qPCR assay was developed to target a point mutation (Y136F) of the CYP51 gene that is a contributing factor to DMI resistance in E. necator; the mutation is present in 79.1% of tested 2017 samples (n=43). Analysis by sequencing of the SDHI gene complex has yielded 5 point mutations within two of the subunits in the SDH complex. Two of those mutations induce amino acid changes in their respective proteins and are being analyzed for potential contribution to SDHI resistance.

Interaction of Red Blotch Virus (GRBV) and Deficit Irrigation on Grapevine Water Relations, Disease Development, and Vine Productivity

A field experiment with two irrigation treatments – wet (W) and dry (D) – and two vine disease statuses – healthy (RB-) and infected (RB+) – was initiated in a commercial vineyard to understand the interaction between GRBV infection and deficit irrigation on disease development, vine productivity, and fruit quality. Irrigation treatments were imposed by varying the number of drip emitters per vine. W vines were irrigated at 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc), while D vines received water at 66% ETc. Within each irrigation treatment, RB- and RB+ vines (split-plot) were identified based on symptomology data from 2016. The identified vines were confirmed for GRBV positive and negative by PCR-based assays.

Measurements of vine water status (midday stem water potential; Ψstem) were made at regular intervals throughout the growing season beginning just after berry set until just before harvest. Disease severity was recorded every week after the first symptom appearance was observed on RB+ vines. At harvest, berry samples were collected for berry size and compositional analyses; and vine yield and yield components were determined.

There was no significant interaction between irrigation treatment and disease status on disease progression and severity. There was a significant interaction between irrigation treatment and vine disease status on Ψstem, but it depended on phenology. In other words, preveraison Ψstem was not affected by disease status but was significantly higher in RB+ vines postveraison. The higher Ψstem in RB+ vines resulted in larger berries and yield at harvest. Interestingly, RB+ also had greater clusters per vine and berries per vine in the W, but few of the differences in yield and yield components among treatments were significant.

Differences in juice composition among treatments were smaller than previously reported, but all treatment effects were more pronounced on berry secondary metabolites in skins and seeds. In juice, Brix was only slightly impacted by the experimental treatments, but there were no significant differences among treatments in juice pH or TA. In skins and seeds, significant differences among treatments were observed in both concentration and content of some secondary metabolites (anthocyanins and iron-reactive phenolics (IRPs)), but not others (tannins). Irrigation treatment had a greater effect than disease status on anthocyanins, while the converse was observed with respect to tannins and IRPs. Differences in secondary metabolism were most pronounced in seeds, which is likely related to the inhibition of ripening commonly observed in RB+ fruit.

Small differences among treatments in tannins coupled with the large differences in IRPs suggests that GRBV inhibits biosynthesis of flavonols (such as quercetin), which are the dominant class of non-iron-reactive phenolics, particularly in seeds. Since flavonols are implicated in wine mouthfeel, this may offer some explanation as to why GRBV-infected fruit produces lower quality wines. Taken together, these results suggest that keeping vines well-watered may mitigate some of the negative effects of GRBV infection, but ultimate changes in 2 secondary metabolism due to GRBV infection may necessitate using infected fruit for different wine programs (e.g. rosé and/or sparkling) or blending with lots from healthy vineyards.

Red Blotch – Associated Virus

Grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV), the causative agent of red blotch disease, is a member of the genus Grablovirus in the family Geminiviridae, and the first known geminivirus of Vitis spp. (Cieniewicz et al. 2017a; Sudarshana et al., 2015; Varsani et al., 2017). Limited information is available on disease biology and epidemiology. Analysis of the spatiotemporal incidence of GRBaV over a three-year period (2014–2016) in a selected 5-acre vineyard of Cabernet franc in California was consistent with the occurrence of virus spread. The incidence of diseased plants increased by 1-2% annually. Spatial analysis of diseased plants in each year using ordinary runs analysis within rows and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs (SADIE) demonstrated aggregation, particular at the edge of the vineyard proximal to a riparian area, and isolated diseased vines. Analysis of epidemic spread fitting a stochastic patiotemporal model using the Monte Carlo Markov Chain method identified strong evidence for localized (within vineyard) spread. A spatial pattern consisting of a combination of strongly aggregated and randomly isolated symptomatic vines within 8-years post-planting suggested unique epidemic attributes compared to those of other grapevine viruses vectored by mealybugs and soft scales or by dagger nematodes for which typical within-row spread and small-scale autocorrelation are well documented (Cieniewicz et al., 2017b). These findings are consistent with the existence of a new type of vector for a grapevine virus. In contrast, similar spatiotemporal analyses of virus incidence in a diseased Merlot vineyard New York from 2014 to 2016 did not provide any evidence of GRBV spread. An insect vector of epidemiological relevance remains elusive for GRBV although the three cornered alfalfa treehopper (Spissistilus festinus [Say]) was recently shown to transmit GRBV in the greenhouse. To determine the diversity and distribution of potential vector candidates in the Cabernet franc vineyard in California, sticky cards were placed from March to November in 2015 and 2016 in the area where disease incidence increased by nearly 20% between 2014 and 2016. Insects on sticky card traps were identified to species when possible by morphological characteristics and sequencing of the mitochondrial COI barcode region. Among the subsets of insect species/taxa that were removed from sticky cards and tested by multiplex polymerase chain reaction, GRBV was consistently detected in Spissistilus festinus (Membracidae), Colladonus  reductus (Cicadellidae), Osbornellus borealis (Cicadellidae) and a Melanoliarus species (Cixiidae). Populations of these four candidate vectors peaked from June to September with viruliferous S. festinus culminating from late June to early July in both years. An assessment of co-occurrence and co-variation between GRBV-infected vines and viruliferous insects using the association function of SADIE identified a significant association between the spatial distribution of infected vines and viruliferous S. festinus. These findings revealed the epidemiological significance of S. festinus as a vector of GRBV and the need for testing the transmission capability of C. reductus, O. borealis, and the Melanoliarus species (Cieniewicz et al., 2017c). Altogether, our insights into the spread of GRBV and into population dynamics of S. festinus and three other candidate vectors are important to inform epidemiological features of red
blotch disease and devise disease management strategies.

Red Blotch – Associated Virus

Grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV), the causative agent of red blotch disease, is a member of the genus Grablovirus in the family Geminiviridae, and the first known geminivirus of Vitis spp.
(Cieniewicz et al. 2017a; Sudarshana et al., 2015; Varsani et al., 2017). Limited information is available on disease biology and epidemiology. Analysis of the spatiotemporal incidence of
GRBaV over a three-year period (2014–2016) in a selected 5-acre vineyard of Cabernet franc in California was consistent with the occurrence of virus spread. The incidence of diseased plants
increased by 1-2% annually. Spatial analysis of diseased plants in each year using ordinary runs analysis within rows and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs (SADIE) demonstrated
aggregation, particular at the edge of the vineyard proximal to a riparian area, and isolated diseased vines. Analysis of epidemic spread fitting a stochastic spatiotemporal model using the
Monte Carlo Markov Chain method identified strong evidence for localized (within vineyard) spread. A spatial pattern consisting of a combination of strongly aggregated and randomly isolated symptomatic vines within 8-years post-planting suggested unique epidemic attributes compared to those of other grapevine viruses vectored by mealybugs and soft scales or by dagger nematodes for which typical within-row spread and small-scale autocorrelation are well documented (Cieniewicz et al., 2017b). These findings are consistent with the existence of a new type of vector for a grapevine virus. In contrast, similar spatiotemporal analyses of virus incidence in a diseased Merlot vineyard New York from 2014 to 2016 did not provide any evidence of GRBV spread. An insect vector of epidemiological relevance remains elusive for GRBV although the three cornered alfalfa treehopper (Spissistilus festinus [Say]) was recently shown to transmit GRBV in the greenhouse. To determine the diversity and distribution of potential vector candidates in the Cabernet franc vineyard in California, sticky cards were placed
from March to November in 2015 and 2016 in the area where disease incidence increased by nearly 20% between 2014 and 2016. Insects on sticky card traps were identified to species when possible by morphological characteristics and sequencing of the mitochondrial COI barcode region. Among the subsets of insect species/taxa that were removed from sticky cards and tested
by multiplex polymerase chain reaction, GRBV was consistently detected in Spissistilus festinus (Membracidae), Colladonus reductus (Cicadellidae), Osbornellus borealis (Cicadellidae) and a
Melanoliarus species (Cixiidae). Populations of these four candidate vectors peaked from June to September with viruliferous S. festinus culminating from late June to early July in both years. An assessment of co-occurrence and co-variation between GRBV-infected vines and viruliferous insects using the association function of SADIE identified a significant association between the
spatial distribution of infected vines and viruliferous S. festinus. These findings revealed the epidemiological significance of S. festinus as a vector of GRBV and the need for testing the
transmission capability of C. reductus, O. borealis, and the Melanoliarus species (Cieniewicz et al., 2017c). Altogether, our insights into the spread of GRBV and into population dynamics of S.
festinus and three other candidate vectors are important to inform epidemiological features of red blotch disease and devise disease management strategies.

Molecular Characterization and Improved Detection of Californian Isolates of Grapevine Pinot Gris Virus

Grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV) was recently detected in California vineyards. To gain a better understanding of the incidence and distribution of GPGV, we conducted field surveys throughout grape-growing regions in California and found that while the virus infects many varieties of grape, it has only been detected in the US in Napa County to date. The relationship between GPGV infection and symptoms remains complex. All California GPGV isolates share close homology with the asymptomatic reference isolates and when symptoms are observed in GPGV-positive vines, those vines were also infected with Grapevine fanleaf virus. Developing a serological detection method has been challenging, but we will continue this effort in collaboration with our Italian colleagues. Our molecular characterization of the virus has enabled us to develop an improved molecular detection assay which will facilitate monitoring the prevalence and natural spread of the virus. We have shared our research to date with stakeholders throughout the year.

 

Development of a Simulation Environment for Pathogen and Pest Spread in Vineyards

The overall goal of this research has been to develop an innovative modeling platform that can accurately simulate pathogen and pest spread in vineyards. The simulation tool will serve to help producers evaluate disease and pest management decisions using “virtual” crops. This system will allow producers to evaluate “what if” scenarios and to examine how to isolate individual management decisions that influence disease, pest, and plant development. The system can also be used to examine how row orientation, training system, etc. interact with climate and geography at new vineyard locations.

Completed research to date has focused on model development and integration. The project has successfully produced a model framework that integrates previously developed models for climate, plant growth, spore dispersion, pathogen infection, and colony growth. The system is currently able to simulate plant growth and disease progression throughout a growing season. An initial “vineyard builder” tool has been developed to rapidly build up the geometry of a particular vineyard of interest within the simulation system. Work is also underway to develop improved sub-models for meteorology and turbulence. The meteorological model will predict the three-dimensional turbulent wind field, which drives the airborne dispersion model. This work has involved comparing model outputs to field measurements, and making necessary modifications to the model to improve agreement between the two. Other work is developing improved models for airborne particle deposition to plant surfaces.

The overall modeling platform consists of a suite of coupled sub-models that represent the most important physical processes of disease spread such as plant growth, local climate, airborne dispersal by the turbulent wind, pathogen infection and colony growth. These state-of-the-art sub-models are among the most detailed simulation tools that have ever been developed for agricultural crops. Since they require substantial computational resources not provided by the processors of a standard desktop or laptop computer, we have overcome this limitation by using standard computers with a gaming graphics card. We have used the graphics card to accelerate many of the sub-models, meaning that very large simulations can be performed in a matter of minutes.

Using Post-Plant Nematicide Applications for Nematode Suppression

The spray applications with Movento were made on October 19, 2016. Watering scheduled as shown in the overview. On October 28 one of the grape plants was removed. Active leaves, and fibrous roots were excised, and provided after grinding to the Daane laboratory for analysis. Nematode population densities were determined at treatment time (October 18) and post-treatment (January 25). Soil samples were taken from 0-1 and 1-2 ft depth. After extraction, nematodes were identified and counted.

Nematode counts were analyzed before treatments (Fig. 1). Telone II fumigation reduced nematode numbers effectively. At treatment time, nematode numbers were similar among spirotetramat (Movento) treatments although some variability was measured. In parametric analysis, the “watering regiment Movento” treatment combinations analyzed as two-factor factorial design had no significant main effects or interactive effects (data not shown). Soil samples are currently processed to determine nematode numbers post-treatment.

The chemical detection of spirotetramat and its break-down products is initiated. It was possible to detect spirotetramat in the leaf tissues (Fig. 2). No spirotetramat was detected in the plants from the drench-treated plots. There were traces in the Telone-treated plots and in the non-treated controls. These appeared as false positives, and each case was only based on the detection of spirotetramat in one of the five replicate plants of the respective treatments. No spirotetramat was found in roots (data not shown).

The spirotetramat enol was found in leaves and roots from plants of all treatments (Fig. 3, 4). It is currently unclear how this can be explained. We are examining plants of the same source for the potential presence of some of these chemicals before treatment to assess if these could be carrying a back-ground amount of the chemicals. A careful review of our laboratory procedures did not provide any indication of experimental/technical errors that could have led to this find.

Conclusions and outlook

Progress has been made to establish the laboratory method to detect different forms of spirotetramat and its break-down products. A microplot experiment is in place that will be treated in the spring while allowing for additional destructive sampling of chemical analysis and nematode population density monitoring. Population densities of the nematode will provide additional clues on the efficacy of the treatments.

Evaluating the Effects of Grapevine Red Blotch-Associated Virus on Symptom Development and Fruit Maturity

A two year study in 2013 and 2014 evaluated the effect of grapevine red blotch disease on fruit produced on vines infected with Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV). Vine growth was also monitored. In each of four sites, data vines were selected that tested positive or negative by qPCR for GRBaV and negative for several Grapevine leafroll associated viruses, vitiviruses and nepoviruses. Approximately 50{aed9a53339cdfc54d53cc0c4af03c96668ab007d9c364a7466e3349a91bf0a23} of the vines monitored were positive for Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus.  Data vines were located in four vineyards; one site each of Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Zinfandel.  Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon vines were evaluated for two years and fruit was reduced in half of the GRBaV-positive vines to determine the effect of that practice on vine performance as compared to fruit from infected vines with a full crop load.

Foliar disease symptoms were evaluated in 2013 in Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Merlot. Disease severity was an estimate of percent of leaf surface area expressing red color or chlorotic tissue associated with red blotch disease in red and white cultivars respectively. Across cultivars severity was greatest in the basal region of the canopies; however Chardonnay and Merlot canopies had a greater amount of leaf area affected by the disease compared to that of Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay severity was equally high in blades located in both the basal and middle regions of the canopy.

Red blotch disease consistently reduced sugar accumulation and increased malic acid in juice at harvest in Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. Diseased vines had elevated titratable acidity in all cultivars and in Merlot differences were significant. Juice pH was increased in fruit from diseased Chardonnay and Zinfandel vines but not in Cabernet Sauvignon or Merlot. Crop reduction in diseased vines at early veraison in 2013 or just past fruit set on the same vines the following year did not significantly modify the effect of the red blotch disease on fruit composition.

Yield was reduced each year in diseased Chardonnay vines due to fewer clusters whereas Cabernet Sauvignon yield was not affected. In Zinfandel, GRBaV-positive vines produced fewer clusters with less mass than did GRBaV-negative vines although differences were not significant. Pruning weight was reduced in diseased Chardonnay in one of two years and not affected either year in Cabernet Sauvignon.

Biology and Spread of Grapevine Red Blotch-Associated Virus

Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV) was isolated from table and wine grapes, as well as rootstocks, affected by red blotch, a recently recognized viral disease in grapevines.  Analysis of the genetic diversity among isolates of GRBaV indicates the existence of two groups (clades) of genetic variants (Krenz et al., 2014, Al Rwahnih et al., 2015).  Producing a full-length infectious clone of a representative isolate of each of the two clades showed systemic GRBaV infection of healthy grapevines following agroinoculation and the manifestation of typical disease symptoms, i.e. interveinal reddening on Vitis vinifera cvs. Cabernet franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Pinot noir and Pinot gris; and chlorotic and necrotic leaf areas on Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay, while infection was latent in rootstock genotype 3309C.  This work revealed that GRBaV isolates of both clades cause red blotch disease. Analysis of the spatio­temporal incidence of GRBaV in a selected vineyard of Cabernet franc in California and in New York was consistent with the occurrence of virus spread in the former but not in the latter vineyard.  GRBaV isolates spreading in California corresponded to phylogenetic clade 2.  A survey of alternate hosts in proximity to the diseased vineyard in California showed some free-living grapevines infected with GRBaV, suggesting the existence of a hemipteran vector. Insect sticky traps placed in the section of the California vineyard with extensive clustering of diseased vines in 2014 and 2015 revealed a diversity of insect families, genera and species that visited the vineyard, among which, the majority of specimens of three species consistently tested positive for GRBaV in PCR.  These species are investigated for their potential to transmit GRBaV in controlled conditions in the greenhouse.

Interpreting a Multi-Virus Survey and Designing and Delivering Virus Sampling Protocol for Industry-Wide Benefits

A. Analyze incidence of multiple virus diseases in a 2014 survey of grape blocks in the California north coast region and relate virus incidence to block planting date.

B. Interpret patterns of virus incidence in the 2014 survey in relation to entry of different virus diseases into the California grape certification system.

C. Develop a grower information pack and slide presentation to summarize survey information on long term changes in vine health and impact of clean plant strategies on virus incidence.

D. Adapt information from previous epidemiology studies on leafroll and Red Blotch to develop sample size calculations and sampling schemes for virus assessment in grape blocks.

E. Work with grower participation groups in Oakville and Lodi to demonstrate and evaluate virus sampling protocols

F. Develop grower information pack and slide presentation to summarize sampling approaches for virus management in different production situations

G. Make sample size calculations available online via a simple, free web page linked to supporting information on virus diagnostics and epidemiology.

Objective A: As a reminder, we surveyed approximately 100 blocks of wine grape in the North Coast region in the fall of 2014 for the incidence of nine viruses, including Grapevine Red Blotch associated Virus (GRBaV) and Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus (type 3) (GLRaV-3). Ten randomly selected vines in each block were sampled by collecting two petioles per vine.   Samples were tested using a set of species-specific PCR primers after DNA/RNA extraction.