Assessing Fungicide Resistance of grape powdery mildew in Wine, Table and Raisin Grapes

The 2018 assessment campaign processed >3000 samples from the Western US grape production
regions. Analysis of these ToughSpot samples for resistance to quinone outside inhibitor (QoI)
fungicides (FRAC Group 11) using the G143A qPCR assay indicated there is still widespread
resistance throughout Western grape production regions (71% samples with the G143A) but that
resistance is decreasing. Examination of samples from the Willamette Valley of Oregon indicates
that when growers rotate away from using QoI and DMI, the G143A allele occurrence significantly
decreases in the population (31% with G143A). These results were confirmed when isolate and
field sample DNA underwent genotyping by sequencing analysis of the cytb gene. These results
are similar to the QoI resistance observed throughout Oregon in 2015 and 2016. Analysis of these
samples using various molecular techniques and fungicide resistance bioassays to determine
resistance to demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides (FRAC group 3) and succinate
dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicides (FRAC group 7) is ongoing. We have identified 7 E.
necator isolates that are resistant to at least one SDHI fungicide with only one isolate resistant to
more than one SDHI. Sequencing results indicate only one isolate has a known genetic mutation,
thus further sequencing is required. The Y136F qPCR assay for DMI resistance readily detects
the Y136F mutation associated with DMI resistance and can be used to determine DMI resistance
in single spore isolates. Its use on field samples is difficult to interpret because of the multiple
genotypes associated with DMI resistance. A leaf sample collection method was developed that
decreases sample collection and processing time by 40% and is cheaper to process. In addition, a
bark sampling method was developed that agrees with early spring G143A frequency, thus
allowing growers to assess their risk to QoI resistance during the dormant season. Both assays
will be made available to the industry in 2019. Using this project and Oregon Wine board funding
as a foundation for demonstrating grower support, we obtained funding from USDA-SCRI
program to significantly expand research efforts to develop regional networks for managing and
mitigating fungicide resistance.