Interaction of Rootstock, Mechanical Crop Load Management Systems and Differential Regulated Deficit Irrigation on Mineral Nutrient Requirements of Wine Grapes in Southern San Joaquin Valley
Grapevine leafroll disease causes non-uniform maturation of fruit in Vitis vinifera, including poor color development in red grape varieties. The disease causes losses of as much as 20-40%, with delays of 3 weeks to a month in fruit maturation. To date 5 different viruses, namely Grapevine leafroll associated virus (GLRaV) types -1 through -4, and -7, have been conclusively shown to be associated with leafroll disease. In the case of GLRaV-4, several distinct leafroll disease-associated virus strains have been identified within the virus species. This project was planned as a detailed study of the effects of these viruses on cultivar Cabernet Franc grapevines. This grapevine produces a readily scored foliar response to leafroll virus infection. The analysis includes challenges with each agromonically significant GLRaV species, including types -1 and -2 (2 isolates each), -3 (3 isolates), -4, -5, -7 and -9 (one isolate each). Also, pairwise combinations of GLRaVs -1, -2, -3, -5 and -7 are being tested. The test vines are grafted onto a broad selection of different rootstock varieties. Nine different rootstocks are involved in the test, including AXR #1, Mgt 101-14, 110R, 3309C, 5BB, 420A, Freedom, St.
George 15 and St. George 18. 15 replicates for each treatment are divided into three separate blocks each (5 replicate per treatment per block). The project has thus-far revealed a spectrum of differences in infection symptoms attributable to the different virus species, and to different combinations of these viruses and the grapevine varieties they infected. For example, it was observed that leaf symptoms produced by GLRaV-3 were more severe than those produced by GLRaV-4. In another example, it was found that GLRaV-2 induced more severe reactions on vines propagated specifically on rootstocks Freedom and 5BB. Those test vines exhibited red leaf symptoms, short internodes, and a near-lethal decline in vigor. Detailed analysis of these and other specific aspects of leafroll disease are on-going. In 2014, the vine performances were evaluated by measuring the trunk diameter, cane length, pruning weight, yield and fruit composition.
Trunk diameter analysis did not show much differences on each rootstock treated with different GLRaVs and virus isolates. For cane length measurements, the data showed that St. George 15 and St. George 18 rootstocks were not affected by different treatments. However, the two different isolates of GLRaV-2 (2B and 2C) had significant impact on cane length of plants propagated on rootstocks 101-14, 3309C, 5BB and Freedom. The yield did not show any significant difference between different treatments on rootstocks 110R, 420A, 5BB, AXR, Freedom, St. George 15 and -18. Pruning weight analysis did not show any differences between different treatments and rootstocks 110R, 420A, St. George 15 and -18. However, significant differences were observed between different treatments and the rootstocks 101-14, 3309C, 5BB and Freedom. Rootstock AXR was less affected. The analysis also showed that both GLRaV-2 isolates (2B and 2C) in general have been more severely affected the plants on panel of rootstocks.