Winemaking Without Sulfur Dioxide

Spoilage organisms: Zygosaccharomvces and Kloeckera, whose presence in wines seems to be increasing as use of sulfur dioxide is decreasing, were found to be reticent to control at levels which controlled all other spoilage organisms. Studies carried out during this year show that both of these organisms can be efficiently controlled by carbon monoxide but at much higher levels than those employed to control Brettanomyces, Dekkera, and Hansenula.